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Tiếng Anh tại Thanh Trì - Ngữ pháp tiếng Anh với sự so sánh hơn!

Hẳn các bạn đều biết ngữ pháp có vai trò đặc biệt quan trọng trong việc học tiếng Anh vì nó là nền tảng bổ trợ đắc lực cho các kỹ năng: nghe, nói, đọc và viết. Muốn thực hành các kỹ năng khác một cách hiệu quả bạn phải nắm chắc được kiến thức ngữ pháp!

Mời các bạn cùng tham khảo bài viết - Sự so sánh( Comparison) trong tiếng Anh!

I, SO SÁNH BẰNG:
1, Câu khẳng định:


      

As + adj/adv + as ( bằng/như )


Eg: I’m as tall as Tom (Tôi cao bằng Tôm.)
John works as hard as his father (John làm việc vất vả như bố anh ấy.)
2, Câu phủ định:  

 
Not as/so + adj/adv + as (không bằng/như)

Eg: This watch is not as/so expensive as mine. (= my watch)
(Chiếc đồng hồ này không đắt bằng chiếc đồng hồ của tôi.)
She doesn’t sing as/so well as her sister.
(Cô ấy hát không hay như chị cô ấy)

  • Lưu ý:
Khi so sánh danh từ với nghĩa giống/bằng hay không giống/không bằng, ta có thể dùng cấu trúc:
(not) + the same + (noun) + as
Eg: He is the same age as I am.( Anh ấy bằng tuổi tôi.)
Ann’s salary isn’t the same as Jane’s
(Lương của Ann không bằng lương của Jane)
Có thể dùng less + adj/adv + than (kém ….hơn) thay cho not as/so + adj/adv + as
Eg: This watch is less expensive than mine
She sings less well than her sister.
Khi nói gấp bao nhiêu lần, ta dùng cấu trúc ….times as + adj/adv + as
Eg: Their house is three times as big as our
(
Ngôi nhà của họ to gấp ba lần ngôi nhà của chúng ta.)

II, SO SÁNH HƠN
1, Tính từ/trạng từ ngắn: 

 
Adj/adv + ER + than


 
Tính từ/trạng từ ngắn là từ có một vần hay hai vần tận cùng bằng “y”.
Fast -> faster              cold -> colder             thick -> thicker
Lucky -> luckier        happy -> happier        dry -> drier …
Eg: John is stronger than his brother.
(John khỏe như anh trai cậu ấy.)
This athlete runs faster than that one
(Vận động viên điền kinh này chạy nhanh hơn vận động viên kia)






2, Tính từ/trạng từ dài: 
 
More + adj/adv + than



Tính từ/trạng từ dài là từ có hai vần trở lên.
Modern, patient, difficult, fluently, beautifully, ….
Eg: This problem is more difficult than we thought.
(Vấn đề này khó hơn những gì chúng tôi nghĩ.)
He speaks English more fluently than his friend.
(Anh ấy nói tiếng Anh thành thạo hơn bạn của anh ấy.)


III, SO SÁNH NHẤT

1, Tính từ/trạng từ ngắn: 

 
The + adj/adv + EST



Cold -> the coldest                     thick -> thickest
Fast -> fastest
Lucky -> the luckiest                 happy -> the happiest …
Eg: Yesterday was the hottest day of the year.
(
Ngày hôm qua là ngày nóng nhất trong năm.)




2. Tính từ/trạng từ dài: 
 
The + MOST + adj/adv



Eg: She is the most beautiful girl in the class.
(Bạn ấy là bạn gái xinh nhất lớp tôi.)
LƯU Ý:
Ta có thể dùng the least để chỉ mức độ kém …nhất.
Eg: This story is the least interesting of all.
(Truyện này ít thú vị nhất trong tất cả.)
Tính từ/trạng từ bất quy tắc.

 
Tính từ/trạng từ                 So sánh hơn                       So sánh  nhất
Good/well (tốt)                    better                                    the best
Bad/badly (xấu,dở)              worse                                   the worst
Far (xa)                                farther/further                      the farthest/furthest
Little (ít)                              less                                       the least
Many/much (nhiều)             more                                    the most

IV, CÁC DẠNG SO SÁNH KHÁC:

1, Càng ngày càng …
 
Adj/adv + er and adj/adv + er



Eg: Betty is younger and younger (Betty càng ngày càng trẻ.)
He runs faster and faster. (Anh ấy chạy càng ngày càng nhanh.)
Tính từ/trạng từ dài: 

 
More and more + adj/adv



Eg: My wife is more and more beautiful
(Vợ tôi càng ngày càng xinh.)
They work more and more carefully.
(Họ làm việc càng ngày càng cẩn thận)


2, Càng ….càng ….
 
The more + S + V, the more + S + V

Eg: The more I know him, the more I like him.
(
Càng hiểu về anh ấy, tôi càng thích anh ấy.)
 
The + SS hơn + S + V, the + SS hơn + S +V

Eg: The older he gets, the weaker he is
(Ông ấy càng già thì ông ấy càng yếu.)
The more beautiful she is, the more miserable her parent are
(
Cô ta càng đẹp thì cha mẹ cô ta càng khổ.)
 
The more + S + V, the adj + ER + S + V

Eg: The more he works, the richer he is
(
Anh ấy càng làm việc nhiều thì anh ấy càng giàu.)
 
The adj + ER + S + V, the more + S + V

Eg: The hotter it is, the more tired I feel.
(
Trời càng nóng thì tôi càng thấy mệt.)

V, QUI TẮC THÊM ER VÀ EST ĐỐI VỚI TÍNH TỪ/TRẠNG TỪ NGẮN:

1, Adj tận cùng bằng “e”
Eg: large -> larger -> the largest

2, Adj tận cùng bằng phụ âm “y”
Easy -> easier -> the easiest

3, Adj có một âm tiết và có nguyên âm đứng giữa hai phụ âm: gấp đôi phụ âm cuối:
Eg: hot -> hotter -> the hottest


Mời các bạn tham khảo thêm:
 
 
Để hiểu rõ ngữ pháp bài trên mời các bạn cùng làm bài tập ứng dụng sau:

Bài 1: Complete the sentences using “as …as”. Choosen one of the following words.
Expensive     comfortable    fast       long     quietly    soon
Well            often               quickly  much    strong    exciting
1, I don’t earn as much as I’d like
2, Oh, don’t sit there. The stool isn’t ………… the armchair.
3, I didn’t want to wake anybody, so I came ………… I can
4, We can’t do crosswords ………… you do
5, I’m sorry I’m a bit late. I got here ………… I could
6, We like to keep fit, so we go swimming …………. We can
7, It was a difficult question. I answered it …………. I could
8, I prefer surfing to swimming. Swimming isn’t ………..surfing
9, How long can we stay with you? You can stay ………… you like
10, Why don’t you buy a motorbike? A motorbike isn’t ………. a car
11, I need the information quickly, so please let me know ……….. possible
12, I don’t like these plastic screws. Plastic isn’t ……….metal

Bài 2: Complete the sentences using a comparative form:

1, It’s too noisy here. Can we go somewhere quieter?
2, The dining room is so small. I like it a bit ……………
3, The exam was surprisingly easy. I expected it to be ……………
4, The weather is too cold in this country. I’d like to live somewhere ………….
5, You were a bit depressed yesterday but you look ………… today
6, You’re standing too near the camera. Can you move a bit ……….away?
7, Your work isn’t very good. I’m sure you can do ………….
8, You’re driving too fast. Could you drive …………?
9, My job is a bit boring sometimes. I’d like to do something ………..
10, You hardly ever phone me. Why don’t you phone me ………..
11, Don’t worry. The situation isn’t so bad. It could be …………
12, The hotel was surprisingly cheap. I expected it to be ………..
13, This coffee is very weak. I like it a bit …………
14, You’re talking very loudly. Can you speak a bit ……….?
15, I was surprised how complicated it was to use the computer. I thought it would be ……….

Bài 3: Write the comparative form of the adjective or adverb in brackets. Use “than” where necessary.

1, They’ve made these chocolate bars smaller. (small)
2, Sport is more interesting than politics. (interesting)
3, We could have found the place ……….. with a map. (easily)
4, I was feeling tired last night, so I went to bed ………usual. (early)
5, The weather is getting ………(bad)
6, Health and happiness are ………..money. (important)
7, You need to draw it ………..(carefully)
8, I like living in the country. It’s ……….living in the town. (peaceful)
9, We can’t hear. Could you speak a little ………..?)slowly)
10, I can’t stay ………..half an hour. (long)
11, A cellphone would be a ………..present. (useful)
12, It’s a long way from here to the station ……….I thought. (far)
13, Can’t you think of anything ………..to say?(intelligent)
14, It was ………..usual in town day.(busy)
15, Unfortunately her illness was ……….we thought at first.(serious)

Bài 4: Complete the sentences. Use a superlative (-est or most) and a preposition (if necessary):

1, This room is nice. It’s the nicest room in the hotel.
2, Susan is very beautiful. She’s the most beautiful girl I’ve ever met.
3, It was a very happy day. It was ………my life.
4, She’s a very intelligent student. She’s …………the class.
5, The speech was very boring. It was ………..I’ve ever heard.
6, It’s a very large company. It’s ……….the town.
7, August is very wet. It’s ……….the year.
8, The meal was delicious. That was ………I’ve had for a long time.
9, Mathew always drives carefully. He drives ………..all the drivers.
10, She is  a very good player. She is one of ………the team.
11, Manchester United is a very famous football team. They’re one of ……….the world.
12, Melanie is a quick child. She reacts ……….the  three sisters.
13, It was a very bad experience. It is one of ………my life.
14, It’s a very valuable painting. It’s ……….the gallery.
15, Spring is a very busy time for me. It’s ………the year.

Bài 5: Complete the sentences, using the structure “….er and ….er” or “ more and more”:

1, This subject gets harder and harder all the time.(hard)
2, I’m just getting more and more confused. (confused)
3, It’s becoming ……….for me to keep up (difficult)
4, The textbook just gets …………(complicated)
5, I spend ………..time on my work, (much)
6, My list of things to do gets ……….(long)
7, As I waited for my interview, I became ………..(nervous)
8, My problem is just getting ……….(bad)
9, Since she has been in Britain, her English has got ………(got)
10, My bags seemed to get ………as I carried them(heavy)
11, Travelling is becoming ………..(expensive)
12, That hotel in your pullover is getting ………..(big)

Bài 6: Complete the sentences. Use the comparison of the world in brackets:

1, Mary isn’t ………(pretty) as her sister
2, The steak is ……….(expensive) than the fish
3, Of the four dresses, I like the red one ………..(well)
4, Nobody is ………(happy) than Miss Snow
5, It was an awful day. It was ………..(bad) day of my life.
6, John is much ……….(strong) than I thought.
7, They have got three daughters. ……….(old) is 14 years old.
8, Thanks to the progress of science, human life is ………(good and good).
9, Mr Brown is ………(delightful) person I have ever known.
10, The competition makes the price of goods ………(cheap and cheap).
11, Sam’s conduct is ………..(bad) than Paul’s.
12, These boys are ………..(ill-prepared) for employment than my children.
13, What is ………..(popular) sport in your country?
14, They speak English ……….(fluently) than we do.
15, Of the three boys, Harry is ………(badly-bred)

Bài 7: Complete the sentences with “than” or “as”:

1, I can’t reach as high as you. You’re taller than me/I am.
2, He doesn’t know much. I know more …………………………
3, I don’t work particularly hard. Most people work as hard ………………..
4, We were very surprised. Nobody was more surprised ……………………
5, She’s not a very good player. I’m a better player …………………………
6, They’ve been very lucky. I wish we were as lucky ……………………….
7, You speak English very well. We can’t speak as well ……………………
8, I didn’t spend as much money as you. You spent more money …………..

Bài 8: Head this part of Tessa’s letter to her friend about her new job. Choose the most suitable word to fill in the blank.

My new job is great I like it (1) …….better than my old one. The people here are (2) ……than I expected. Luckily my new boss isn’t as rude (3) ……my old boss, Mrs Crossley, was I hate her. She was the (4) ……youngest person (6) …….the office. The good thing about the job is that I get a (7) ……..more money. The bad thing is that the journey isn’t (8) …….simple as it was in my old job, where the bus took me straight there. Now I have to change buses. But I’m allowed to start work early. The (9) …….leave home, (10) ……..the journey because the buses aren’t so crowded.

 
  1. A. more               B. most                    C. much               D. very
  2. A. more nice        B. most nice             C. nicer                D. nicest
  3. A. as                    B. so                        C. than                 D. that
  4. A. least                B. less and less        C. less                  D. so
  5. A. as I                  B. as me                   C. than I               D. than me
  6. A.form                B. in                         C. of                     D. out of
  7. A. bit                   B. less                       C. lot                    D. much
  8. A.as                     B. less                       C. more                D. same
  9. A. early               B. more early            C. earliest             D. earlier
   10.A.more easy         B. more easier           C. the easier         D. the easy
       
 


Đáp án: 

Bài 1:
2, as comfortable as          7, as well as
3, as quietly as                  8, as exciting as
4, as quickly as                 9, as long as
5, as fast as                       10, as expensive as
6, as often as                    11, as soon as
12, as strong as   

Bài 2:
2, larger/bigger               9, more interesting
3, more difficult             10, more often
4, warmer                       11, worse
5, happier                       12, more expensive
6, further/farther            13, stronger
7, better                         14, more quietly
8, more slowly 

Bài 3: 
3, more easily                   9, more slowly
4, earlier than                 10, longer than
5, worse                         11, more useful
6, more important than  12, further/farther than
7, more carefully           13, more intelligent
8, more peaceful than   14, busier than
15, more serious than

Bài 4:
3, the happiest day of                4, the most intelligent student in
5, the most boring speech         6, the largest company in
7, the wettest month of             8, the most delicious meal
9, the most carefully of            10, the best players in
11, the most famous teams in  12, the quickest of
13, the worst experiences of    14, the most valuable painting in
15, the busiest time of

Bài 5: 
3, more and more difficult       4, more and more complicated
5, more and more                     6, longer and longer
7, more and more nervous       8, worse and worse
9, better and better                  10, heavier and heavier
11, more and more expensive 12, bigger and bigger

Bài 6:
1, as pretty                              9, the most delightful
2, more expensive                  10, cheaper and cheaper
3, best                                    11, worse
4, happier                              12, more ill - prepared/ worse - prepared
5, the worst                           13, the most popular
6, stronger                             14, more fluently
7, the eldest/oldest                15, the most badly - bred / the worst - bred
8, better and better

Bài 7: 
2, than him/than he does        6, as them/as they have been
3, as me/ as I do                     7, as you/as you do
4, than us/than we were         8, than meI did
5, than her/than she is

Bài 8: 

1, c           4, a              7, a            10, c
2, c          5, d               8, a
3, a          6, b               9, d

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